The Sisson Brook W–Mo–Cu deposit was formed by hydrothermal fluids likely related to the Nashwaak Granites (muscovite–biotite granite, Group I; and biotite granite, Group II) and related dykes (biotite granitic dykes, Group III; and a feldspar–biotite–quartz porphyry dyke, Group IV). Chemical data obtained using EPMA and LA-ICP-MS data of primary magmatic biotites were used to investigate magmatic processes and associated hydrothermal fluids.Trace element features of biotite in the Group I two-mica granite suggest other magmatic processes along with a simple fractional crystallization. The K/Rb ratios and compatible elements (Cr, Ti, Co, V, and Ba) in biotite from Groups II, III, and IV decrease, whereas incompatible elements including Ta, Tl, Ga, Cs, Li, and Sn increase with magma fractionation. No correlation of Cu, W and Mo with K/Rb ratios is evident, suggesting that partitioning of Cu, W, and Mo into biotite may not be entirely controlled by magma fractionation.Halogen fugacity of the parental magma of the Nashwaak Granites and related dykes, calculated from zircon saturation temperature shows that Group I has high fHF/fCl ratios (broadly higher than 0), similar to the plutons at the Henderson porphyry Mo deposit. The fHF/fCl ratios of the other groups are generally lower than 0, comparable to the Santa Rita porphyry Cu deposit. The fH2O/fHCl and fH2O/fHF ratios inferred from biotite in the Nashwaak Granites and related dykes range from 3 to 5 and from 4 to 5, respectively. The inferred oxygen fugacity shows that the dyke phases (Groups III and IV) have the oxygen fugacity around the nickel–nickel oxide buffer. The plutonic phases (Groups I and II) have the oxygen fugacity around the quartz–fayalite–magnetite (QFM) buffer at high temperatures and oxidized to nickel–nickel oxide buffer at lower temperatures. This oxidation process in the plutonic phases (Groups I and II) could be caused by H2 release at or near H2O vapor saturation at high H2O/Fe2+. The magma associated with the biotite dykes (Group III) is more likely the source of the hydrothermal fluids at the Sisson Brook deposit since it has the highest differentiation degree and seems to have formed in an oxidized setting, necessary for Mo to concentrate in the late stage fluids.
Ore Geology Reviews – Elsevier
Published: Sep 1, 2016
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