Gene expression and phenoloxidase activities of hemocyanin isoforms in response to pathogen infections in abalone Haliotis diversicolor

Gene expression and phenoloxidase activities of hemocyanin isoforms in response to pathogen... Hemocyanins (Hc), the main protein components of hemolymph in invertebrates, are not only involved in oxygen transport but also linked to non-specific immune responses. In this study, we used abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) Hc to study the basis of its diversified functions through gene, protein, peptides, and phenoloxidase (PO) activity levels. Three complete hemocyanin gene (HdH) sequences were cloned for the first time. By comparing the copies and location of HdH between abalone and other mollusks, we propose that Hc gene duplication and linkage is likely to be common during the evolution of mollusk respiratory proteins. We further demonstrate that all three genes could be expressed in abalone, with expression varying based on the developmental stages, tissue types, and different pathogen infections. However, HdH1 and HdH2 appear to be synthesized by the same cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Furthermore, the PO activity of HdH can be induced by trypsin, urea, and SDS in vitro. Viral infection can stimulate its PO activity in vivo by cleaving the protein into fragments. Consequently, we present a comprehensive study of abalone hemocyanin, providing important evidence for an in-depth understanding of the physiological and immune functions of Hc in mollusks. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Biological Macromolecules Elsevier

Gene expression and phenoloxidase activities of hemocyanin isoforms in response to pathogen infections in abalone Haliotis diversicolor

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V.
ISSN
0141-8130
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.02.013
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Hemocyanins (Hc), the main protein components of hemolymph in invertebrates, are not only involved in oxygen transport but also linked to non-specific immune responses. In this study, we used abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) Hc to study the basis of its diversified functions through gene, protein, peptides, and phenoloxidase (PO) activity levels. Three complete hemocyanin gene (HdH) sequences were cloned for the first time. By comparing the copies and location of HdH between abalone and other mollusks, we propose that Hc gene duplication and linkage is likely to be common during the evolution of mollusk respiratory proteins. We further demonstrate that all three genes could be expressed in abalone, with expression varying based on the developmental stages, tissue types, and different pathogen infections. However, HdH1 and HdH2 appear to be synthesized by the same cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Furthermore, the PO activity of HdH can be induced by trypsin, urea, and SDS in vitro. Viral infection can stimulate its PO activity in vivo by cleaving the protein into fragments. Consequently, we present a comprehensive study of abalone hemocyanin, providing important evidence for an in-depth understanding of the physiological and immune functions of Hc in mollusks.

Journal

International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesElsevier

Published: May 15, 2019

References

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