Six phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in human urine sampled randomly from three districts (Erode, Thanjavur, and Perambalur) in Tamil Nadu State and a Union Territory (Pondicherry) in India were quantified. We determined gender-wise, age-wise and location-wise distribution of PAEs and measured estrogenic activity of urine by molecular docking. Bis(2‑ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the predominant phthalic acid ester found and had a recovery of 104.5% (ultrasonic extraction at 15 min). Gender-wise (pregnant women: 185 ng/mL, children: 156 ng/mL, female: 151 ng/mL, and male: 138 ng/mL), age-wise (1–20 y: 157 ng/mL, 21–40 y: 156 ng/mL, and >40 y: 146 ng/mL), location-wise (urban: 154 ng/mL, and rural: 151 ng/mL), and region-wise (Erode district: 185 ng/mL, Thanjavur district: 155 ng/mL, Perambalur district: 117 ng/mL, and Pondicherry: 135 ng/mL) differences with total mean of Σ6 PAEs were found. The molecular docking study showed a high negative binding energy of PAEs with microbial receptors. Based on the results we conclude that urine could be used as an ideal biomarker to understand PAEs exposure in humans.
Journal of Chromatography B – Elsevier
Published: Mar 15, 2018
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