1 Introduction</h5> Vehicles powered by gasoline direct injection (GDI) otherwise known as direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines entered the car market in the late 1990s [1–8] . GDI engines provide benefits of high engine efficiency, low fuel consumption and emissions  . The global volume of GDI engines is expected to overtake that of port fuel injection (PFI) engines by 2020  .</P>GDI engines can be classified into three categories by the mixture formation process (e.g., air-guided, wall-guided, and spray-guided)  . In the air-guided combustion system, fuel is transported near the spark plug by a strong tumble flow generated by inlet ports with a special shape or by a flow control valve in the intake port. The air-guided combustion system is highly sensitive to bulk air motion; therefore it may suffer from severe cylinder-by-cylinder and cycle-by-cycle variations. In the wall-guided combustion system, fuel is directed to the spark plug by a specially designed piston with a cavity on the crown. Wall-guided GDI engines are commonly referred to as first generation GDI engines. In both the air-guided and wall-guided combustion system, the injector and spark plug are separated by a large distance; therefore they are called wide-spacing concepts. In
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science – Elsevier
Published: Oct 1, 2015
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