1 Introduction</h5> The commercialization of research – the process of moving scientific or technological developments into saleable products – is a key component of entrepreneurship. Although the literature on entrepreneurship has been dominated by attention to individual-level factors (e.g., Baron and Ensley, 2006; Baumol, 2002; Kuemmerle, 2002; Shane and Venkataraman, 2000; Eesley and Roberts, 2012; Hmieleski and Baron, 2009; Markman and Baron, 2002; Roberts, 1991; Shaver et al., 2001 ), recent work also emphasizes the role of context ( Aldrich, 1999; Dobrev and Barnett, 2005; Lee et al., 2011; Levie and Autio, 2011; Sørensen, 2007a; Stuart and Ding, 2006; Thornton, 1999 ). This research has offered particular attention to local, regional and national initiatives aimed at promoting entrepreneurship and commercialization, especially in connection with university-invented technologies (e.g., Audretsch et al., 2007; Eesley, 2009; Grimaldi et al., 2011; Lockett et al., 2005; Mustar and Wright, 2010; Wright et al., 2007 ). The implicit assumption of this literature, therefore, is that individual entrepreneurial efforts are malleable, at least to some degree; although individual-level characteristics are important, contextual features are critical toward understanding entrepreneurial behaviors such as commercialization.</P>Assessing the role of context, however, is difficult since participants and features of the
Research Policy – Elsevier
Published: Sep 1, 2014
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