1 Introduction</h5> The automobile has changed the earth's natural and built environment more than any other invention. This was not obvious in its first days, given that the scientific community initially contrasted automobiles with horses regarding hygienic aspects ( The Lancet, 1896a ), safety ( The Lancet, 1896b ), and maintenance ( Automobilist, 1899 ). Some early proponents speculated that “[p]robably the horse will never be banished, but (…) [s]ome day, perhaps, motor-cars will have tracks of their own” ( The Lancet, 1901, p. 1429 ). However, neither scientists nor policymakers anticipated the automobile's unparalleled environmental impacts which have unfolded over the last century. As of 2014, there are 1 billion passenger cars worldwide, with projections of up to 2.8 billion by 2050 ( Meyer et al., 2012 ). For the natural environment , this global diffusion of cars means climate change, waste, and pollution ( Aamaas et al., 2013; Chae, 2010; Tolón-Becerra et al., 2012 ), and these problems get worse: “Amongst the industries, transport is the sector with the fastest growth of greenhouse gases emissions, both in developed and in developing countries” ( Berrittella et al., 2008, p. 307 ). For the built environment , cars
Environmental Science & Policy – Elsevier
Published: Jan 1, 2015
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