•We studied effects of overstory species and height on defoliation of regeneration.•Plots represented a fir-hardwood gradient and two stages of spruce budworm outbreaks.•Defoliation of fir regeneration was higher in softwood than in hardwood stands.•Fir regeneration taller than 30 cm had higher defoliation than smaller regeneration.•Models showed significant effects of interactions of hardwoods, height, and year.
Forest Ecology and Management – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2018
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