Flehmen response in bull: role of vaginal mucus and other body fluids of bovine with special reference to estrus

Flehmen response in bull: role of vaginal mucus and other body fluids of bovine with special... The present investigation was carried out with a view to evaluate the frequency of Flehmen behaviour in bull in response to body fluids of cows in various stages of the estrous cycle, in the context of estrus detection. The study was performed on free moving bulls under natural conditions. Samples of vaginal mucus, saliva, faeces and milk of pro-estrus, estrus and di-estrus stages collected from donor cows were rubbed individually onto the genital regions of non-estrus animals (dummy cows) and the bulls were observed for 30 min for assessment of Flehmen behaviour. The duration of Flehmen behaviour shown by bulls was maximum towards the dummy cows receiving estrus sample. Such Flehmen behaviour, however, did not occur in bulls in response to the cows receiving samples of other stages. The statistical significance was higher ( P <0.001) in exhibiting repeated Flehmen behaviour towards estrus as compared to those of pro-estrus and di-estrus. Among the various body fluids tested, the exhibition of Flehmen behaviour was significantly higher ( P <0.01) in response to estrus vaginal fluid. No response was observed on dummy cows (control) to which only water was applied on the genital region. The results suggest that vaginal mucus may act as an additional/secondary source along with urine in eliciting copulatary behaviour and executing coitus in bulls during estrus. The results further suggest that in addition to vaginal mucus, other body fluids like saliva, faeces and milk have estrus-related odours and are probably involved in bovine bio-communication. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Behavioural Processes Elsevier

Flehmen response in bull: role of vaginal mucus and other body fluids of bovine with special reference to estrus

Behavioural Processes, Volume 67 (1) – Jul 30, 2004

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2004 Elsevier B.V.
ISSN
0376-6357
eISSN
1872-8308
DOI
10.1016/j.beproc.2004.02.007
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The present investigation was carried out with a view to evaluate the frequency of Flehmen behaviour in bull in response to body fluids of cows in various stages of the estrous cycle, in the context of estrus detection. The study was performed on free moving bulls under natural conditions. Samples of vaginal mucus, saliva, faeces and milk of pro-estrus, estrus and di-estrus stages collected from donor cows were rubbed individually onto the genital regions of non-estrus animals (dummy cows) and the bulls were observed for 30 min for assessment of Flehmen behaviour. The duration of Flehmen behaviour shown by bulls was maximum towards the dummy cows receiving estrus sample. Such Flehmen behaviour, however, did not occur in bulls in response to the cows receiving samples of other stages. The statistical significance was higher ( P <0.001) in exhibiting repeated Flehmen behaviour towards estrus as compared to those of pro-estrus and di-estrus. Among the various body fluids tested, the exhibition of Flehmen behaviour was significantly higher ( P <0.01) in response to estrus vaginal fluid. No response was observed on dummy cows (control) to which only water was applied on the genital region. The results suggest that vaginal mucus may act as an additional/secondary source along with urine in eliciting copulatary behaviour and executing coitus in bulls during estrus. The results further suggest that in addition to vaginal mucus, other body fluids like saliva, faeces and milk have estrus-related odours and are probably involved in bovine bio-communication.

Journal

Behavioural ProcessesElsevier

Published: Jul 30, 2004

References

  • The vomeronasal system
    Brennan, P.A
  • The role of the vomeronasal organ in mammalian reproduction
    Estes, R.D
  • The organization and function of the vomeronasal system
    Halpern, M
  • Variations of equine urinary volatile compounds during the oestrous cycle
    Ma, W; Klemm, W.R
  • Occurrence of Flehmen in male buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis ) with special reference to estrus
    Rajanarayanan, S; Archunan, G
  • Urinary steroids, FSH and CG measurement for monitoring the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the chimpanzee
    Shimizu, K; Douke, C; Fujita, S; Matsuzawa, T; Tomonaga, M; Tanaka, M; Matsubayashi, K; Hayashi, M

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