Flavonoids—Chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources

Flavonoids—Chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds, diverse in chemical structure and characteristics, found ubiquitously in plants. Therefore, flavonoids are part of the human diet. Over 4,000 different flavonoids have been identified within the major flavonoid classes which include flavonols, flavones, flavanones, catechins, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, dihydroflavonols, and chalcones. Flavonoids are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals and are excreted either unchanged or as flavonoid metabolites in the urine and feces. Flavonoids are potent antioxidants, free radical scavengers, and metal chelators and inhibit lipid peroxidation. The structural requirements for the antioxidant and free radical scavenging functions of flavonoids include a hydroxyl group in carbon position three, a double bond between carbon positions two and three, a carbonyl group in carbon position four, and polyhydroxylation of the A and B aromatic rings. Epidemiological studies show an inverse correlation between dietary flavonoid intake and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) which is explained in part by the inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation and reduced platelet aggregability. Dietary intake of flavonoids range between 23 mg/day estimated in The Netherlands and 170 mg/day estimated in the USA. Major dietary sources of flavonoids determined from studies and analyses conducted in The Netherlands include tea, onions, apples, and red wine. More research is needed for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid absorption, metabolism, biochemical action, and association with CHD. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry Elsevier

Flavonoids—Chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0955-2863
D.O.I.
10.1016/S0955-2863(95)00168-9
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds, diverse in chemical structure and characteristics, found ubiquitously in plants. Therefore, flavonoids are part of the human diet. Over 4,000 different flavonoids have been identified within the major flavonoid classes which include flavonols, flavones, flavanones, catechins, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, dihydroflavonols, and chalcones. Flavonoids are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals and are excreted either unchanged or as flavonoid metabolites in the urine and feces. Flavonoids are potent antioxidants, free radical scavengers, and metal chelators and inhibit lipid peroxidation. The structural requirements for the antioxidant and free radical scavenging functions of flavonoids include a hydroxyl group in carbon position three, a double bond between carbon positions two and three, a carbonyl group in carbon position four, and polyhydroxylation of the A and B aromatic rings. Epidemiological studies show an inverse correlation between dietary flavonoid intake and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) which is explained in part by the inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation and reduced platelet aggregability. Dietary intake of flavonoids range between 23 mg/day estimated in The Netherlands and 170 mg/day estimated in the USA. Major dietary sources of flavonoids determined from studies and analyses conducted in The Netherlands include tea, onions, apples, and red wine. More research is needed for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid absorption, metabolism, biochemical action, and association with CHD.

Journal

The Journal of Nutritional BiochemistryElsevier

Published: Feb 1, 1996

References

  • Crystal and molecular structure of flavonoids
    Cody, V.
  • Disposition of quercetin in Man after single oral and intravenous doses
    Gugler, R.; Leschik, M.; Dengler, H.J.
  • Effect of red wine ingestion on the antioxidant capacity of serum
    Whitehead, T.P.; Robinson, D.; Allaway, S.; Syms, J.; Hale, A.
  • Does wine work?
    Goldberg, D.M.

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