The sol-gel approach offers a new class of flame retardants with a high potential for textile applications. Pure inorganic sol-gel systems do, however, typically not provide an effect sufficient for a self-extinguishing behavior on its own. We therefore employed compounds with nitrogen and phosphorous containing groups. Especially the combination of compounds with both elements, using the synergism, is promising for the aim to find well-applicable, environmental friendly, halogen-free flame retardants. In our approach, the sol-gel network ensured on the one hand the link to the textile as non-flammable binder. On the other hand, the sol-gel-based networks modified with functional groups containing nitrogen groups provided flame retardancy. In this way, a flame retardant finishing for textiles could be obtained by simple finishing techniques as, e.g., padding. Besides a characterization with various flame tests (e.g., according to EN ISO 15025 – protective clothing), we used a combination of cone calorimetry, thermogravimetry coupled with infrared spectroscopy analysis and scanning electron microscopy to analyze the mechanism of flame retardancy. Thus, we could show that the main mechanism is based on the formation of a protection layer. This work provides a model system for sol-gel-based flame retardants and has the potential to show the principle feasibility of the sol-gel approach in flame retardancy of textiles. It therefore lays the groundwork for tailoring sol-gel layers from newly synthesized sol-gel precursors containing nitrogen and phosphorous groups.
Polymer Degradation and Stability – Elsevier
Published: Jul 1, 2016
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