Flame-retardant-treated cellulose (FR-cell) was used as bio-based charring agent in combination with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) based intumescent flame retardant (IFR) system to reduce the flammability of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) foams produced by supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) assisted extrusion. FR-cell was obtained by surface treatment of cellulose with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and boric acid (BA). To enhance foamability, the inherently low melt strength and slow crystallization rate of PLA was increased by adding epoxy-based chain extender (CE) and montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay, respectively. The morphology of the foams was examined using water displacement method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Thermal properties were assessed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Flammability was evaluated by limiting oxygen index (LOI) measurements, UL-94 tests and pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC). The continuous extrusion foaming technique allowed the preparation of low density PLA foams with uniform microcellular structure and void fractions higher than 90% accompanied with increased crystallinity of up to 19%. Despite the high expansion ratios (i.e. high surface area), the PLA foams showed excellent flame retardancy, UL-94 V-0 rate and LOI value of 31.5 vol% was achieved with an additive content as small as 19.5%. However, the flame retardant synergism evinced between IFR and MMT proved to be less pronounced in the expanded foams compared to bulk materials with identical additive contents.
Polymer Degradation and Stability – Elsevier
Published: Jul 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera