First line of defense in early human life

First line of defense in early human life Innate antimicrobial peptides are considered to play an important role in host defense against microbial invasion. They are expressed in a wide variety of organisms. In the case of human beings, defensins and the cathelicidin LL-37 appear to be the major microbicidal peptides. With respect to human neonates, only few investigations have been performed in this context, revealing the presence of α-defensins and LL-37 in neutrophils and vernix caseosa . In addition, β-defensins are present in tracheal aspirates and breast milk, whereas LL-37 has been detected in the skin of the newborn baby. During recent years, immunomodulatory activities such as chemotaxis have emerged as important functions of antimicrobial peptides. Thus, these innate effectors may work synergistically to provide a first line of defense against infection, as well as to promote interactions between the innate and adaptive immunity in newborn infants. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Seminars In Perinatology Elsevier

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2004 Elsevier Inc.
ISSN
0146-0005
eISSN
1558-075X
DOI
10.1053/j.semperi.2004.08.008
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Innate antimicrobial peptides are considered to play an important role in host defense against microbial invasion. They are expressed in a wide variety of organisms. In the case of human beings, defensins and the cathelicidin LL-37 appear to be the major microbicidal peptides. With respect to human neonates, only few investigations have been performed in this context, revealing the presence of α-defensins and LL-37 in neutrophils and vernix caseosa . In addition, β-defensins are present in tracheal aspirates and breast milk, whereas LL-37 has been detected in the skin of the newborn baby. During recent years, immunomodulatory activities such as chemotaxis have emerged as important functions of antimicrobial peptides. Thus, these innate effectors may work synergistically to provide a first line of defense against infection, as well as to promote interactions between the innate and adaptive immunity in newborn infants.

Journal

Seminars In PerinatologyElsevier

Published: Aug 1, 2004

References

  • Antibacterial peptides
    Boman, H.G.
  • Defensins of vertebrate animals
    Lehrer, R.I.; Ganz, T.
  • Hagfish intestinal antimicrobial peptides are ancient cathelicidins
    Uzzell, T.; Stolzenberg, E.D.; Shinnar, A.E.
  • Synergistic and additive killing by antimicrobial factors found in human airway surface liquid
    Singh, P.K.; Tack, B.F.; McCray, P.B.
  • Antimicrobial peptides and the skin
    Bardan, A.; Nizet, V.; Gallo, R.L.
  • Surface free energy characterization of vernix caseosa. Potential role in waterproofing the newborn infant
    Youssef, W.; Wickett, R.R.; Hoath, S.B.
  • Antimicrobial factors in the cervical mucus plug
    Hein, M.; Valore, E.V.; Helmig, R.B.
  • Antimicrobial factors and microbial contaminants in human milk
    May, J.T.
  • Neutrophil antibacterial peptides, multifunctional effector molecules in the mammalian immune system
    Gudmundsson, G.H.; Agerberth, B.
  • Effect of defensins on interleukin-8 synthesis in airway epithelial cells
    Van Wetering, S.; Mannesse-Lazeroms, S.P.; Van Sterkenburg, M.A
  • LL-37, the neutrophil granule- and epithelial cell-derived cathelicidin, utilizes formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) as a receptor to chemoattract human peripheral blood neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells
    Yang, D.; Chen, Q.; Schmidt, A.P.

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