Numerous surgical options are available for the management of stress urinary incontinence in women, including urethral bulking agents, pubovaginal slings, retropubic bladder neck suspensions, midurethral slings, and even artificial urinary sphincters. We discuss the incidence, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of bladder outlet obstruction after anti-incontinence surgery in women. This problem presents with a wide range of symptoms. Urodynamic evaluation is not always diagnostic but can be helpful. Management options range from conservative to invasive. The optimal timeline for intervention is still not well defined, but general guiding principles of management are presented and a comprehensive review of current literature is presented.
Urology – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2018
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