The Paddy Land-to-Dry Land (PLDL) program, which is a representative example of payment for watershed ecosystem services, has played a critical role in protecting the source of the Beijing Municipality's water supply in the Miyun Reservoir watershed since 2006. Previous studies have evaluated the program's benefits and costs and confirmed its positive impacts. However, local farmers' Willingness to Accept (WTA) for compensation, its impact factors and relevant policies, which are key factors determining its successful implementation, have not been analyzed. In this paper, a hypothesis argues that positive ecological impacts could lead to decreasing WTA values, whereas negative ecological effects could lead to increasing values. The study areas comprised three counties in Hebei Province and one district in Beijing Municipality. A total of 391 randomly selected farmers (with a response rate of 92%) participated in a face-to-face questionnaire-based survey. The contingent valuation method was applied as the main analytical tool for evaluating nonmarket environmental goods or services. Interval regression of the Tobit model was applied to analyze WTA impact factors and was validated using a logit model. The study's findings confirmed the positive effects of the PLDL program, but they did not confirm the lower WTA values that were hypothesized in the study areas. This disparity between the hypothesis and survey results can be explained in three dimensions: environmental, economic, and social. First, environmental awareness had a strong positive correlation with WTA. Respondents who valued environmental protection above economic development required higher compensation. Second, respondents' gender and household's incomes were closely related to their environmental awareness, but were not directly related to the dependent variable of WTA. Third, respondents whose degree of equity relating to the program was lower than that of others required a higher payment. Moreover, an ecological service (ES) provider's age and WTA were negatively related, younger respondents demanded a higher value for payment-related WTA in the study areas. Therefore, policymakers' decisions regarding ecological compensation should evidently take into account WTA impact factors in the PLDL program, especially ES providers' ages, their environmental awareness, and the degree of equity that they have.
Journal of Cleaner Production – Elsevier
Published: May 10, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera