dFacilitated tucking by parentsT in pain management
of preterm infants—a randomized crossover trial
, Sanna Salantera
, Liisa Lehtonen
Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, 20014 University of Turku, Finland
Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, 20520 Turku, Finland
Accepted 29 September 2005
Background: There is a need for a safe and effective non-pharmacological pain management
method for preterm infants. The parents could be given an active role in the pain management
which may help the parents to cope with the stress related to painful situations of the infant.
Aims: To examine the effectiveness of a method called dfacilitated tucking by parentsT (a parent
holds the infant in a flexed position) in pain management during endotracheal/pharyngeal
suctioning of preterm infants. In addition, the parental perception of the method was studied.
Study design: A randomized crossover trial.
Subjects: Twenty preterm infants with one of their parents participated in the study. Infants’
gestational age ranged from 24 to 33 (median 28) weeks and postnatal age from 6 to 37 days
(median 15 days).
Outcome measures: The primary outcome was the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) score. Heart
rate and oxygen saturation were recorded. Parents completed a questionnaire about their
perception of the procedure.
Results: The highest NIPS score was median 3 (range from 2 to 6) using dfacilitated tucking by
parentsT and median 5 (range from 2 to 7) without tucking during suctioning ( p b0.001). The
infants calmed down more quickly after dfacilitated tucking by parentsT (5 s vs. 17 s, p = 0.024).
Nineteen out of twenty parents preferred facilitated tucking during suctioning compared to
Conclusions: Facilitated tucking by parents is an effective and safe pain management method
during suctioning of preterm infants. This study shows that parents can be given an active role in
the pain care of their preterm infants.
D 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
0378-3782/$ - see front matter D 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
* Corresponding author. Turku University Hospital/Department of Pediatrics/499, PL 52, 20521 Turku, Finland. Fax: +358 2 3131460.
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (A. Axelin).
Early Human Development (2006) 82, 241 —247
available at www.sciencedirect.com