Since purinergic signaling was discovered in the early 1970s, it has been shown that extracellular nucleotides, and their derivative nucleosides, are released in a regulated or unregulated manner by cells in various challenging settings and then bind defined purinergic receptors to activate intricate signaling networks. Extracellular ATP plays a role based on different P2 receptor subtypes expressed on specific cell types. Sequential hydrolysis of extracellular ATP catalyzed by ectonucleotidases (e.g. CD39, CD73) is the main pathway for the generation of adenosine, which in turn activates P1 receptors. Many studies have demonstrated that extracellular ATP signaling functions as an important dynamic regulatory pathway to coordinate appropriate immune responses in various pathological processes, including intracellular infection, host-tumor interaction, pro-inflammation vascular injury, and transplant immunity. ATP receptors and CD39 also participate in related clinical settings. Here, we review the latest research in to the development of promising clinical treatment strategies.
Clinical Immunology – Elsevier
Published: Mar 1, 2018
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