Although the toxicity of synthetic chemicals at high doses is well known, chronic exposure to low-dose chemical mixtures has only recently been linked to many age-related diseases. However, it is nearly impossible to avoid the exposure to these low-dose chemical mixtures as humans are exposed to a myriad of synthetic chemicals as a part of their daily lives. Therefore, coping with possible harms due to low dose chemical mixtures is challenging. Interestingly, within the range of environmental exposure, disease risk does not increase linearly with increasing dose of chemicals, but often tends to plateau or even decrease with increasing dose. Hormesis, the over-compensation of various adaptive responses through cellular stresses, is one possible mechanism for this non-linearity. Although the hormetic effects of synthetic chemicals or radiation have long been debated in the field of toxicology, the hormesis concept has recently been generalized in the field of molecular biology; similar to responses to synthetic chemicals, mild to moderate intermittent stressors from any source can induce hormetic responses. Examples of stressors are exercise, calorie restriction, intermittent fasting, cognitive stimulation, and phytochemicals. Mitohormesis is hormesis induced by such stressors through mitochondrial retrograde signalling including the increased production of mild reactive oxygen species. Xenohormesis is phytochemical-induced hormesis, reflective of a mutualistic relationship between plant and animals. As humans had repeated exposure to all of these stressors during their evolution, the hormetic effects of these health behaviours may be considered to be evolutionarily adapted. Although hormesis induced by synthetic chemicals occurs in humans, such hormesis may not be recommended to the public due to unresolved issues on safety including the impossibility of control exposure. However, the use of personal health behaviors which enhance mitohormetic- or xenohormetic-stress can be readily incorporated into everyone's daily lives as a practical way to counteract harmful effects of unavoidable low-dose chemical mixtures.
Environmental Pollution – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera