1 Introduction</h5> Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical, with 15-billion pounds reported being produced in 2013 ( GrandViewResearch, 2014 ). BPA is used in a wide variety of consumer products, including polycarbonate and other forms of plastics, resins used to line food and beverage containers, thermal print papers, and composites used in dentistry. Based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), virtually all people in the USA are exposed to measurable levels of BPA ( Calafat et al., 2008 ). BPA contaminates our air, water, and soil ( EnvironmentCanada, 2008 ), and thus the pervasiveness of human exposure is not disputed ( Calafat et al., 2008; Vandenberg et al., 2010a ). BPA exposure appears to be from multiple routes on a near continuous basis, since only a portion the urine total BPA drops as a function of fasting time ( Stahlhut et al., 2009 ).</P>Beginning in 1999, studies were published of the results of methods to measure BPA in human serum ( Table 1 ). These initial studies reported determinations solely of the unconjugated (also referred to as aglycone or parent) BPA that is the biologically active endocrine disrupting molecule; BPA
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2014
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