1 Introduction</h5> 1.1 Wave modelling</h5> The third generation wind-wave models, such as WAM ( WAMDI, 1988 ), WAVEWATCH III ( Tolman, 2009 ) (hereinafter, WW3), and SWAN ( Booij et al., 2004 ), are based on a balance equation for wave spectrum and widely used in theoretical studies and practical applications for global and regional operational forecasts in terms of the wind-wave process at sea. The balance equation, first proposed by ( Hasselmann, 1960 ), is described by D N / D t = S / σ , where D / D t is the total derivative, N ( k , θ ) ≡ F ( k , θ ) / σ is the action density spectrum, and S represents the net source and sink terms for the spectrum F . The k , θ , and σ are the wavenumber, direction, and relative frequency, respectively. Then, the balance equation for the action density used in WW3 takes the following conservative form (1) ∂ N ∂ t + ∇ x ⋅ ( C g + U ) N + ∂ ∂ k k ̇ N + ∂ ∂ θ θ ̇ N = 1 σ ( S i
Ocean Engineering – Elsevier
Published: May 15, 2015
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