Cyclophosphamide (CP) and Ifosfamide (IF) are two nitrogen mustard drugs widely prescribed in cancer therapy. They are continuously released via excreta into hospital and urban wastewaters reaching wastewater treatment plants. Although CP and IF, their metabolites and transformation products (TPs) residues have been found in the aquatic environment from few ng L−1 to tens of μg L−1, their environmental toxic effects are still not well known. The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic ecotoxicity of CP and IF and their commercially available human metabolites/TPs, i.e. carboxy-CP, Keto-CP and N-dechloroethyl-CP on different organisms of the aquatic trophic chain. The experiments were performed using the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus and the crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Moreover, to assess the treatment conditions in regards to parent compound removal and formation of new TPs, CP and IF were UV- irradiated for 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h and 48 h, followed by toxicity evaluation of treated samples by algae, rotifers and crustaceans. Between the parent compounds, IF resulted as more toxic drug under tested conditions, exerting both acute and chronic effects especially on C. dubia (LC50:196.4 mg L−1, EC50:15.84 mg L−1). Among the tested metabolites/TPs, only carboxy-CP inhibited the reproduction in the rotifer. However, LOEC and NOEC values were calculated for CP and IF for all organisms. In addition, despite a low degradation of CP (28%) and IF (36%) after 48 h UV-irradiation, statistically significant effect differences (p < 0.05) from not-irradiated and irradiated samples were observed in both acute and chronic assays, starting from 6 h UV-irradiation. Our results suggest that the toxic effects found in the aquatic organisms may be attributable to interactions between the parent compounds and their metabolites/TPs.
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies – Elsevier
Published: Jan 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera