Esterification of oleic acid to biodiesel using magnetic ionic liquid: Multi-objective optimization and kinetic study

Esterification of oleic acid to biodiesel using magnetic ionic liquid: Multi-objective... 1 Introduction</h5> In the wake of today’s environmental concerns and limited fossil fuel resources, biodiesel has stepped up to be a viable solution to both problems. Biodiesel can be obtained via transesterification of triglycerides or esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs), where these reactions require the presence of alcohol to produce fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) [1] . Triglycerides occur naturally in vegetable oils and animal fats, thus reducing the dependency on fossil fuel for energy. Some biodiesel properties are even superior to petroleum diesel. Its higher flashpoint ensures safety of biodiesel during transportation or distribution, while higher cetane number indicates that biodiesel has a higher combustion efficiency [2] . Generally, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur oxides are reduced for exhaust emissions from biodiesel combustion [3] . The reductions are beneficial for the environment, especially carbon dioxide as it is one of the main greenhouse gases that contributes to global warming phenomena.</P>Different range of materials can be used for biodiesel synthesis. These include vegetable oils such as soybean, rapeseed, canola, and palm [1] . In order to avoid competition with food sector, non-edible sources are utilized. Examples of these types of feedstock are waste http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Applied Energy Elsevier

Esterification of oleic acid to biodiesel using magnetic ionic liquid: Multi-objective optimization and kinetic study

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0306-2619
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.10.011
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

1 Introduction</h5> In the wake of today’s environmental concerns and limited fossil fuel resources, biodiesel has stepped up to be a viable solution to both problems. Biodiesel can be obtained via transesterification of triglycerides or esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs), where these reactions require the presence of alcohol to produce fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) [1] . Triglycerides occur naturally in vegetable oils and animal fats, thus reducing the dependency on fossil fuel for energy. Some biodiesel properties are even superior to petroleum diesel. Its higher flashpoint ensures safety of biodiesel during transportation or distribution, while higher cetane number indicates that biodiesel has a higher combustion efficiency [2] . Generally, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur oxides are reduced for exhaust emissions from biodiesel combustion [3] . The reductions are beneficial for the environment, especially carbon dioxide as it is one of the main greenhouse gases that contributes to global warming phenomena.</P>Different range of materials can be used for biodiesel synthesis. These include vegetable oils such as soybean, rapeseed, canola, and palm [1] . In order to avoid competition with food sector, non-edible sources are utilized. Examples of these types of feedstock are waste

Journal

Applied EnergyElsevier

Published: Feb 1, 2014

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