1 Introduction</h5> Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) refers to a cluster of clinical abnormalities associated with an increased risk of laminitis [1,2] . In 2002, Johnson  recognized that primary features of a laminitis-prone phenotype (i.e., obesity, insulin resistance) were analogous to those described for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in humans which is a constellation of abnormalities, including obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and hypertension, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and perhaps also type 2 diabetes mellitus [3–5] . Work by a number of authors has documented similarities between EMS and MetS ( Table 1 ). In 2010, the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine large animal consensus statement  listed several criteria for EMS based on available research data. The three main criteria included: documented or suspected insulin resistance (IR), that is hyperinsulinemia and/or abnormal glycemic and insulinemic responses to oral or IV glucose or insulin challenges; generalized obesity and/or increased adiposity in specific locations (regional adiposity) including the nuchal ligament (“cresty neck”), the tailhead, behind the shoulder, in the prepuce or mammary gland region; and predisposition toward laminitis that develops in the absence of other recognized causes, such as grain overload, retained placenta, colitis, colic or
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science – Elsevier
Published: May 1, 2015
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