1 Introduction</h5> Alternative fuels for internal combustion engines have recently attracted considerable attention due to the ever diminishing petroleum reserves and environmental consequences of increasing greenhouse gas emissions. The growing environmental concerns, tougher Clean Air Act Standards [1,2] and Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Mandates  are among the major drivers for development of alternative fuels from renewable resources that are sustainable and environmentally acceptable. The U.S. RFS sets a goal of 36 billion gallons of biofuels production by year 2022, of which 21 billion gallons should come from the so-called “advanced biofuels” and a minimum of 1 billion gallons of biodiesel.</P>Over the last decade, biodiesel has attracted considerable attention as a renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and clean-burning substitute for petroleum based diesel fuel which reduces emissions of carcinogenic compounds by as much as 85% compared to petrodiesel, essentially free of sulfur, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals. The biodiesel properties such as cetane number, energy content, viscosity and phase changes are similar to those of petrodiesel fuel [4–6] , however, the engines fueled with biodiesel emit significantly fewer particulates, hydrocarbons, and less carbon monoxide than those engines operating on conventional diesel fuel. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emission of biodiesel (B100)
Applied Energy – Elsevier
Published: Apr 15, 2014
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