1 Introduction</h5> Machining of titanium alloys has been identified as one of the most important manufacturing processes since broad adoption of these alloys in aerospace, automotive, chemical and biomedical industries  . Titanium alloys have excellent mechanical properties such as high hot hardness, a good strength-to-weight ratio and high corrosion resistance. It is also well known that β-titanium alloys offer higher tensile strengths due to their enhanced inherent hardness, with increased fatigue strength and better forming properties in comparison to near-α- or α + β-titanium alloys. However, poor thermal conductivity and high chemical affinity of these alloys to traditional tool materials severely impair their machinability  . It has been reported that β-titanium alloys are among the most difficult to machine titanium alloys  .</P>Machining processes of titanium alloys are typically characterised by low cutting feeds and speeds, typically in the range of 12–38 m/min for aged alloys  . This increases machining costs, especially for many aircraft components where 90% of the material often needs to be removed in order to achieve a final shape. Needless to say, the cost of machined titanium components could be substantially reduced by improving material removal rates (MRR). Additionally, high friction
Ultrasonics – Elsevier
Published: Sep 1, 2013
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