Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Engineering approaches to study ﬁbrosis in 3-D in vitro systems 1 1 Ana M Porras , Heather N Hutson , Anthony J Berger and Kristyn S Masters Fibrotic diseases occur in virtually every tissue of the body and myoﬁbroblasts leads to tissue stiffening, which then acts are a major cause of mortality, yet they remain largely in a positive feedback loop to sustain pathological levels untreatable and poorly understood on a mechanistic level. The of myoﬁbroblast activity . Although ECM upregulation development of anti-ﬁbrotic agents has been hampered, in and scar formation can be normal components of tissue part, by the insufﬁcient ﬁbrosis biomimicry provided by repair, these events are dysregulated in ﬁbrosis, where the traditional in vitro platforms. This review focuses on recent heavily crosslinked, collagen-rich matrix progressively advancements toward creating 3-D platforms that mimic key supplants the original functional tissue, eventually lead- features of ﬁbrosis, as well as the application of novel imaging ing to organ dysfunction and failure. and sensor techniques to analyze dynamic extracellular matrix remodeling. Several opportunities are highlighted to apply new Despite the prevalence of ﬁbrotic diseases and the wide tools from the ﬁelds of biomaterials, imaging, and
Current Opinion in Biotechnology – Elsevier
Published: Aug 1, 2016
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