In this study we determine the total (direct plus indirect) energy requirements of a given set of Brazilian households. We use a generalized input–output model in order to calculate the energy embodied in goods and services purchased by households of different income level in 11 capital cities of Brazil. Our results show that, on average, the total energy intensity of household expenditure increases with income level, although there is a considerable spread in energy intensities within income classes as well as disparities between regions of the country. The total yearly average energy requirement per household in Brazil in 1995–96 was 173.6 GJ (61% of which was indirect), with 32.8 GJ for the lower income level (66% of which was indirect), and 602.2 GJ for the higher income level (62% of which was indirect). Of this total average energy requirement, 76% was required for only three consumption categories: utilities (31%), mobility (28%) and shelter (17%). This analysis calls for the attention that has to be given not only to the direct energy consumption (as motor fuels and electricity, for example) but also to the consumption categories that encompass an important part of the indirect energy requirement of households in capital cities in Brazil.
Energy Policy – Elsevier
Published: Mar 1, 2005
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