Amide herbicides, which are used extensively worldwide, are often chiral. Enantiomeric selectivity comes from the different effects of the enantiomers on target and non-target organisms. In this study, the enantiomers of three amide herbicides were purified by the semi-preparative column and were used to investigate the enantioselective effects on target Echinochloa crusgalli (lowland rice weeds), and non-target Microcystis aeruginosa, and the yeast transformed with the human TRβ plasmid organisms. The results showed that (i) the R-enantiomers of the three amide herbicides exhibited the strongest activity toward weed inhibition and the lowest toxicity toward non-target organisms; (ii) napropamide was better suited for controlling root growth, while acetochlor and propisochlor were better for leaves control; (iii) herbicides at certain low concentrations (0.01 mg L−1 for acetochlor and propisochlor) could be utilized to promote plant growth. These findings encourage the use of R-amide herbicides instead of their racemates to increase the efficiency of weed control and reduce the risk to non-target organisms. On the other hand, the adverse effects are caused mostly by S-enantiomer, using R-enantiomer-enriched products may offer great environmental/ecological benefits.
Science of the Total Environment – Elsevier
Published: Jun 1, 2018
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