For many years, it was widely accepted that control of plasma lipids and blood pressure could lower macrovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whereas the benefits of lowering plasma glucose were largely limited to improvements in microvascular complications. The Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients–Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) study demonstrated for the first time that a glucose-lowering agent, the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin, could reduce major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization for heart failure, and overall mortality when given in addition to standard care in patients with T2DM at high cardiovascular risk. These results were entirely unexpected and have led to much speculation regarding the potential mechanisms underlying cardiovascular benefits. In this review, the results of EMPA-REG OUTCOME are summarized and put into perspective for the endocrinologist who is treating patients with T2DM and cardiovascular disease.
The American Journal of Medicine – Elsevier
Published: Jun 1, 2017
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