Time dependent sensitization (TDS) - phenomenon described originally by Chiodo and Antelman (1980) in context of dopamine receptors, refers to cascade of events that continue to develop in the organism, after the initiating stimulus is no longer available. Treatment could be recognized as such a initiating stimulus (in case of depression, example of electroconvulsive therapy would be obvious, but some aspects of pharmacotherapy too). The process leads to improvement, but, on the other hand, phenomena of kindling in recurrent depression is well known (more relapses and therapies make heavier and longer lasting subsequent episodes). Hence our interest in delayed effects of treatment. Here we report alterations in rat immune system after Imipramine (IMI) treatment cessation.Wistar male rats were treated with IMI (10 mg/kg i.p. in 2 ml/kg of saline) repeatedly for 21 days or once - on the last day of drug administration period. Then the 3 weeks discontinuation phase begun, during which, at certain time points (3 h, 72 h, 7days, 21days) the trunk blood was collected. Tissue concentrations of IMI and its metabolite desipramine (DMI), as well as ACTH and various cytokines were measured.The IMI and DMI was detectable only 3 h after the last i.p. injection of the drug. Ever since the second time point (72 h of discontinuation) the levels of either compound were below detection threshold.There was no significant changes in ACTH levels between rat groups, although IMI seemed to attenuate alterations of the hormone level comparing to control groups. We observed differences between groups regarding certain cytokines at certain time points. Namely: at 72 h of discontinuation IL-2 and IL-4 were elevated in sera of rats treated with IMI acutely; at 7d of discontinuation levels of IL-1α, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-12 were affected in both acutely and chronically treated animals.Presented data support, regarding some cytokines in serum, the TDS theory. Furthermore they refer to important aspect of antidepressants (ADs) action – antidepressant discontinuation syndrome (ADS). The most frequently, ADS has been described in context of ADs-disrupted monoamine homeostasis. Here, the other principle (i.e. immunomodulation) of the syndrome is proposed.
Neurochemistry International – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera