Several works evaluated the toxicity of pharmaceutical drugs and climate related changes in invertebrates but few explored the combined effects of both stressors, namely considering their mode of action (MoA). Carbamazepine (CBZ) and cetirizine (CTZ) are pharmaceutical drugs detected in the environment and the toxicity derived from the combined effects of these drugs with ocean acidification (OA) is poorly explored. Thus, the present study investigated the biochemical parameters related to an oxidative stress response and the transcription of genes related to the MoA of CBZ (1.0 μg/L) and CTZ (0.6 μg/L) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum chronically exposed (28 days) to control (7.8) and low (7.5) pH conditions. The results obtained showed that despite the clams accumulated both drugs, at low pH the clams exposed to CTZ decreased drug concentration and BCF values (CTZ uptake: 2.0 ± 0.5 ng/g fresh weight; BCF: 3.8 ± 0.9) in comparison with clams exposed to control pH (CTZ uptake: 2.9 ± 0.3 ng/g fresh weight; BCF: 5.5 ± 0.6). No oxidative stress was induced by the exposure to CBZ or CTZ at each pH level, but the transcription of several genes related with the MoA (neurotransmission, immunity and biomineralization) was altered by low pH, drug exposure and the combination of both stressors. At both pH conditions, CBZ increased the transcription of GABA receptor gene (neurotransmission) and CTZ led to a decrease of Perlucin gene (biomineralization) transcription. The transcription of MyD88 gene (immunity) decreased at low pH (7.5) combined with drug exposure (CBZ or CTZ). Thus, it was highlighted that the interaction of drug exposure and low pH conditions can change bivalves’ sensitivity to drugs or alter drugs toxicity.
Environmental Pollution – Elsevier
Published: Apr 1, 2018
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