Despite significant recent advancement in research, biogeochemical behavior of heavy metals with respect to their applied form is still topical. Moreover, metal toxicity to plants may vary with their stage of development/maturity. Therefore, this study for the first time evaluated the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) on cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity to germinating and young pea seedlings as well as in younger and older leaves. The experimental setup of current study consisted of two separate studies. The first study was performed on germinating seedlings grown in a Cd-contaminated sand media. Pea seeds were treated with two levels of Cd (Cd-25 and Cd-100) alone and combined with different levels of EDTA and CA. The second study was carried out in hydroponic solution. The influence of organic amendments on Cd accumulation and toxicity to pea plants was evaluated by determining Cd contents in pea seedlings, H2O2 contents, chlorophyll contents and lipid peroxidation in younger and older leaves.Cadmium stress caused overproduction of H2O2 in roots and leaves of pea seedlings. Cadmium-induced overproduction of H2O2 caused a decrease in the pigment contents and increased lipid peroxidation. Application of EDTA at higher levels (81 and 200µM) increased Cd accumulation by pea plants. However, CA did not affect Cd accumulation by pea. Both EDTA and CA increased Cd-induced H2O2 production and lipid peroxidation. Younger pea leaves showed more sensitivity to Cd stress compared to older leaves. Similarly, Cd toxicity was more pronounced in germinating seedlings than young seedlings. Moreover, Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) showed very interesting correlations between treatments and stress responses of germination and young seedlings as well as younger and older leaves. Based on multivariate analysis, it is proposed that the Cd toxicity to pea plants greatly vary with its growth stage and the maturity of organs (younger or older leaves).
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety – Elsevier
Published: Apr 30, 2018
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