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Effect of freezing and thawing processes on some physical properties of saline–sodic soils mixed with sewage sludge or fly ash

Dispersion of saline–sodic soils was rather difficult to leach. Therefore, negative effects of freeze–thaw on soil physical properties should be reduced by inexpensive and practical methods. This study investigates the effect of freeze–thaw cycles (3, 6, and 9) on wet aggregate stability, bulk density, and permeability coefficient in three soils with different electrical conductivity and exchangeable sodium percentage levels (soil I: 5.30 dS m −1 , 47.51%; soil II: 42.80 dS m −1 , 55.45%; soil III: 36.30 dS m −1 , 59.34%) which consist of different proportions of sewage sludge and fly ash by volume (10%, 20%, and 30%). The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions using disturbed and non-cropped soil samples mixed with sewage sludge and fly ash. Soils mixed with sewage sludge produced higher aggregate stability and permeability coefficients and lower bulk density values as compared to the soils mixed with fly ash. Sewage sludge added with a rate of 30% eliminated the negative effects of freeze–thaw processes on wet aggregate stability. Freeze–thaw processes did not affect the bulk density of the soils II and III, which were mixed with sewage sludge. However, fly ash addition decreased the bulk density of these soils very significantly after nine freeze–thaw cycles. Addition of sewage sludge or fly ash with rates of 20% and 30% significantly increased the permeability coefficients in soil I after nine freeze–thaw cycles. Results indicated that addition of sewage sludge and/or fly ash to saline–sodic soils could be alternative way for reducing negative effects of freezing–thawing on soil wet aggregate stability, bulk density, and permeability coefficient. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Soil and Tillage Research Elsevier
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