Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related substances are widely used in various industrial and commercial applications in China that ultimately discharge sufficient quantities of PFOS to the environment. It remains unclear how emissions of PFOS ultimately affect its concentrations as well as its fate in the environment. In this study, an improved Berkeley-Trent (BETR) multimedia model is developed to predict the PFOS levels with spatial and temporal distributions on unsteady state mode from 1981 to 2050, by taking the Bohai Rim of China as a case. The results showed that the modeled concentrations agreed well with the measured data. According to the model, PFOS concentrations in fresh water peaked in some months after the peak emission (2008 or 2009), whereas in urban soil the concentrations increased to peak slightly later (around 2014). Among the selected regions, Beijing and Tianjin were simulated with higher PFOS levels in the past and present because of their higher urbanization and industrialization since the 1980s, while in the future, Shandong and Liaoning are expected to have higher concentrations of PFOS than those in Beijing. The water system including coastal water, fresh water and sediment was the biggest sink for PFOS for coastal regions. Among the chemical inputs, direct primary emissions played a more important role, whereas for chemical removal processes, inter-regional advection and background outflow were the predominant pathways. The results would be useful to control the PFOS releases in China and will help the management agencies to implement the “Stockholm Convention” effectively.
Environmental Pollution – Elsevier
Published: Apr 1, 2018
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