Prostate cancer characteristically induces osteoblastic bone metastasis, for which no therapies are available. A dual kinase inhibitor of c-Met and VEGFR-2 (cabozantinib) was shown to reduce prostate cancer growth in bone, with evidence for suppressing osteoblastic activity. However, c-Met and VEGFR2 signaling in osteoblasts in the context of bone metastasis remain unclear. Here we show using cultured osteoblasts that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and VEGF-A increased receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL) and M-CSF, two essential factors for osteoclastogenesis. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) also increased RANKL and M-CSF via c-Met transactivation. The conditioned media from IGF1-, HGF-, or VEGFA-treated osteoblasts promoted osteoclastogenesis that was reversed by inhibiting c-Met and/or VEGFR2 in osteoblasts. In vivo experiments used cabozantinib-resistant prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and C4-2B) to test the effects of c-Met/VEGFR2 inhibition specifically in osteoblasts. Cabozantinib (60 mg/kg, 3 weeks) suppressed tumor growth in bone and reduced expression of RANKL and M-CSF and subsequent tumor-induced osteolysis. Collectively, inhibition of c-Met and VEGFR2 in osteoblasts reduced RANKL and M-CSF expression, and associated with reduction of tumor-induced osteolysis, suggesting that c-Met and VEGFR2 are promising therapeutic targets in bone metastasis.
Cancer Letters – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2018
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