Highlights ► Forest elephants have been extirpated from vast areas in the Congo basin such as at LuiKotale. ► Fourteen of the tree species studied (total 18) with megafaunal syndrome are elephant-dependent. ► For 12 of the tree species, the first cohorts were totally absent in our plots due to the absence of elephants. ► Species able to recruit without elephants show clumped patterns.
Forest Ecology and Management – Elsevier
Published: May 1, 2013
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