DNA methylation: regulation of gene expression and role in the immune system

DNA methylation: regulation of gene expression and role in the immune system 1 <h5>Introduction</h5> The regulation of eukaryotic gene expression is a complex process. DNA methylation plays a role in this scheme by acting in cis to modulate protein-DNA interactions. For most genomic DNA, patterns of DNA modification are not inherited from the parental gametes but are actually established anew in each generation through a series of developmentally regulated steps. DNA methylation of the animal genome correlates with gene expression. Thus, tissue-specific genes are mostly methylated in every tissue where they are not expressed, while unmethylated in their tissue of expression [1] . A notable exception are the constitutively expressed housekeeping genes, which harbor 5′ CpG islands, and remain unmethylated in all tissues [2, 3] . These patterns of methylation are achieved through a process of demethylation and de novo methylation. After first undergoing generalized demethylation in the early preblastula embryo [4–6] , the genome becomes modified at about the time of implantation through a wave of de novo methylation that alters most CpG sites, but leaves CpG islands unmethylated [6, 7] . At later stages of development, tissue specific genes undergo selective demethylation in their cell-type of expression.</P>2 <h5>Methylation and demethylation machinery</h5> The only mammalian DNA methyltransferase enzyme which http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer Elsevier

DNA methylation: regulation of gene expression and role in the immune system

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.
ISSN
0304-419X
eISSN
1879-2561
DOI
10.1016/S0304-419X(97)00010-3
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

1 <h5>Introduction</h5> The regulation of eukaryotic gene expression is a complex process. DNA methylation plays a role in this scheme by acting in cis to modulate protein-DNA interactions. For most genomic DNA, patterns of DNA modification are not inherited from the parental gametes but are actually established anew in each generation through a series of developmentally regulated steps. DNA methylation of the animal genome correlates with gene expression. Thus, tissue-specific genes are mostly methylated in every tissue where they are not expressed, while unmethylated in their tissue of expression [1] . A notable exception are the constitutively expressed housekeeping genes, which harbor 5′ CpG islands, and remain unmethylated in all tissues [2, 3] . These patterns of methylation are achieved through a process of demethylation and de novo methylation. After first undergoing generalized demethylation in the early preblastula embryo [4–6] , the genome becomes modified at about the time of implantation through a wave of de novo methylation that alters most CpG sites, but leaves CpG islands unmethylated [6, 7] . At later stages of development, tissue specific genes undergo selective demethylation in their cell-type of expression.</P>2 <h5>Methylation and demethylation machinery</h5> The only mammalian DNA methyltransferase enzyme which

Journal

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on CancerElsevier

Published: Aug 8, 1997

References

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