Little research has been carried out for the per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in groundwater from non-industrial areas, even though it has been proved that PFASs can transport for long distance. In this study, the concentration profiles and geographical distribution of 14 PFASs, including two alternatives of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS) and potassium 9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanonane-1-sulfonate (F-53B), were analyzed in groundwater samples (n = 102) collected from water wells in non-industrial areas. The total concentrations of PFASs (Σ14PFASs) in groundwater samples ranged from 2.69 to 556 ng/L (mean 43.1 ng/L). The detection rates of shorter chain (C4-C9) PFASs were 62.75–100%, higher than those of long chain (> C10) PFASs with detection rates of less than 40%. The source identification using hierarchical cluster analysis and Spearman rank correlation analysis suggested that domestic sewage and atmospheric deposition may contribute significantly to the PFAS occurrence in groundwater in non-industrial areas, while the nearby industrial parks may contribute some, but not at a significant level. Furthermore, the human health risk assessment analysis shows that the health hazards associated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and PFOS, two of the main PFAS constituents in groundwater from non-industrial areas, were one or two orders of magnitude higher than those in a previous study, but were unlikely to cause long-term harm to the residents via the drinking water exposure pathway alone.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety – Elsevier
Published: May 15, 2018
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