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Dissecting plant iron homeostasis under short and long-term iron fluctuations

1 Introduction</h5> Iron is the most common element by mass in the Earth's outer and inner core and the fourth most common element in the crust. Naturally occurring iron consists of four stable isotopes with 56 Fe as the most abundant ( Holleman et al., 1985 ). Iron is a transition metal with the ability to change its oxidation state in both hydrated free states, [Fe(H 2 O) 6 ] 2 + and [Fe(H 2 O) 6 ] 3 + , and in complexes with different organic molecules. This gives iron its catalytic character and makes it an essential micronutrient for photosynthesis, respiration, sulphate assimilation, hormone synthesis, and nitrogen fixation, as well as DNA synthesis and repair ( Le and Richardson, 2002; Rains, 1976 ). Iron availability is also of the utmost importance for pathogenesis where hosts and pathogens compete for the iron reserves by producing high affinity ferric chelators ( Miethke and Marahiel, 2007; Smits and Duffy, 2011 ). Iron is an indispensable micronutrient in the redox reactions for virtually all organisms. However, exceptions are lactic acid bacteria where manganese and cobalt replace iron and the two pathogenic bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum1 which as obligate http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Biotechnology Advances Elsevier
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