Article history: Carbon carbon bond formations and deoxygenation reactions are important for biomass up-grading. The Received 30 December 2015 classical ketonic decarboxylation of carboxylic acids provides symmetrical ketones with 2n + 1 carbon Accepted 18 January 2016 atoms and eliminates three oxygen atoms. Herein, this reaction is carried out with titanium oxide at Available online 21 January 2016 400 C, and an oleﬁn with 2n + 1 carbon atoms is obtained instead of the ketone. For oleﬁn formation hydrogen transfer reactions are required from suitable precursors to form aromatics and coke. Keywords: Additional aldol condensation reactions increase further molecular weight in the product mixture. Aldol condensation Hence, a combination of titanium oxide with a hydrodeoxygenation bed provides double amount of Carbon carbon bond formation diesel fuel as the combination with zirconium oxide when reacting hexose-derived pentanoic acid. Ketonic decarboxylation © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Hydride transfer Second generation diesel fuel 1. Introduction bon atoms are obtained. As a consequence, two or more of these ﬁve to six carbon-atom molecules have to be connected together The connection of two carboxylic acids to a ketone, i.e., the if molecules with a larger number of carbon atoms are desired for
Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical – Elsevier
Published: May 1, 2016
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