Differential Distribution of Retinoic Acid Synthesis in the Chicken Embryo as Determined by Immunolocalization of the Retinoic Acid Synthetic Enzyme, RALDH-2

Differential Distribution of Retinoic Acid Synthesis in the Chicken Embryo as Determined by... Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (RALDH-2) is a major retinoic acid generating enzyme in the early embryo. Here we report the immunolocalization of this enzyme (RALDH-2-IR) in stage 6–29 chicken embryos; we also show that tissues that exhibit strong RALDH-2-IR in the embryo contain RALDH-2 and synthesize retinoic acid. RALDH-2-IR indicates dynamic and discrete patterns of retinoic acid synthesis in the embryo, particularly within the somitic mesoderm, lateral mesoderm, kidney, heart, and spinal motor neurons. Prior to somitogenesis, RALDH-2-IR is present in the paraxial mesoderm with a rostral boundary at the level of the presumptive first somite; as the somites form, they exhibit strong RALDH-2-IR. Cervical presomitic mesoderm exhibits RALDH-2-IR but thoracic presomitic mesoderm does not. Neural crest cells do not express detectable levels of RALDH-2, but migrating crest cells are associated with RALDH-2 expressing mesoderm. The developing limb mesoderm expresses little RALDH-2-IR; however, RALDH-2-IR is strongly expressed in tissues adjacent to the limb. The most lateral, earliest-projecting motor neurons at all levels of the spinal cord exhibit RALDH-2-IR. Subsequently, many additional motor neurons in the brachial and lumbar cord regions express RALDH-2-IR. Motor neuronal expression of RALDH-2-IR is present in the growing axons as they extend to the periphery, indicating a potential role of retinoic acid in nerve influences on peripheral differentiation. With the exception of a transient expression in the facial/vestibulocochlear nucleus, cranial motor neurons do not express detectable levels of RALDH-2-IR. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Developmental Biology Elsevier

Differential Distribution of Retinoic Acid Synthesis in the Chicken Embryo as Determined by Immunolocalization of the Retinoic Acid Synthetic Enzyme, RALDH-2

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 1999 Academic Press
ISSN
0012-1606
eISSN
1095-564X
DOI
10.1006/dbio.1999.9286
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (RALDH-2) is a major retinoic acid generating enzyme in the early embryo. Here we report the immunolocalization of this enzyme (RALDH-2-IR) in stage 6–29 chicken embryos; we also show that tissues that exhibit strong RALDH-2-IR in the embryo contain RALDH-2 and synthesize retinoic acid. RALDH-2-IR indicates dynamic and discrete patterns of retinoic acid synthesis in the embryo, particularly within the somitic mesoderm, lateral mesoderm, kidney, heart, and spinal motor neurons. Prior to somitogenesis, RALDH-2-IR is present in the paraxial mesoderm with a rostral boundary at the level of the presumptive first somite; as the somites form, they exhibit strong RALDH-2-IR. Cervical presomitic mesoderm exhibits RALDH-2-IR but thoracic presomitic mesoderm does not. Neural crest cells do not express detectable levels of RALDH-2, but migrating crest cells are associated with RALDH-2 expressing mesoderm. The developing limb mesoderm expresses little RALDH-2-IR; however, RALDH-2-IR is strongly expressed in tissues adjacent to the limb. The most lateral, earliest-projecting motor neurons at all levels of the spinal cord exhibit RALDH-2-IR. Subsequently, many additional motor neurons in the brachial and lumbar cord regions express RALDH-2-IR. Motor neuronal expression of RALDH-2-IR is present in the growing axons as they extend to the periphery, indicating a potential role of retinoic acid in nerve influences on peripheral differentiation. With the exception of a transient expression in the facial/vestibulocochlear nucleus, cranial motor neurons do not express detectable levels of RALDH-2-IR.

Journal

Developmental BiologyElsevier

Published: Jun 15, 1999

References

  • Limb initiation and development is normal in the absence of the mesonephros
    Fernandez-teran, M.; Piedra, M.E.; Simandl, B.K.; Fallon, J.F.; Ros, M.A.
  • A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo
    Hamburger, V.; Hamilton, H.L.
  • Endogenous distribution of retinoids during normal development and teratogenesis in the mouse embryo
    Horton, C.; Maden, M.
  • Rostral truncation of a cyclostome, Lampetra japonica , induced by all- trans retinoic acid defines the head/trunk interface of the vertebrate body
    Kuratani, S.; Ueki, T.; Hirano, S.; Aizawa, S.
  • Vitamin A-deficient quail embryos have half a hindbrain and other neural defects
    Maden, M.; Gale, E.; Kostetskii, I.; Zile, M.
  • Dynamic patterns of retinoic acid synthesis and response in the developing mammalian heart
    Moss, J.B.; Xavier-Neto, J.; Shapiro, M.D.; Nayeem, S.M.; McCaffery, P.; Dräger, U.C.; Rosenthal, N.
  • Role of the nerve in determining fetal skeletal muscle phenotype
    Washabauh, C.H.; Ontell, M.P.; Shan, Z.; Hoffman, E.P.; Ontell, M.

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