Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate enhances melanoma tumor growth via differential effect on M1-and M2-polarized macrophages in mouse model

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate enhances melanoma tumor growth via differential effect on M1-and... Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers that influence sexual and reproductive development. Here, we investigated whether di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects macrophage polarization that are associated with tumor initiation and progression. No changes were observed in LPS- or ConA-stimulated in vitro spleen B or T cell proliferation for 48 h, respectively. In contrast, macrophage functions were inhibited in response to DEHP for 12 h as judged by LPS-induced H2O2 and NO production and zymosan A-mediated phagocytosis. When six weeks old male mice were pre-exposed to 4.0 mg/kg DEHP for 21 days before the injection of B16F10 melanoma cells and post-exposed to 4.0 mg/kg DEHP for 7 days, tumor nodule formation and the changes in tumor volume were higher than those in control group. Furthermore, when male mice were intraperitoneally pretreated with DEHP for 3 or 4 weeks and peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) or bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the expression of COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 was reduced in DEHP-pretreated cells as compared with that in LPS-stimulated control cells. While the production of nitric oxide (NO) for 18 h was reduced by LPS-stimulated PECs and M1-type BMDMs, IL-4 expression was enhanced in LPS-stimulated BMDMs. When BMDMs were incubated with IL-4 for 30 h, arginase 1 for M2-type macrophages was increased in transcriptional and translational level. Data implicate that macrophages were differentially polarized by DEHP treatment, which reduced M1-polarzation but enhanced M2-polarization. Taken together, these data demonstrate that DEHP could affect in vivo immune responses of macrophages, leading to the suppression of their tumor-preventing ability. This suggests that individuals at high risk for tumor incidence should avoid long-term exposure to various kind of phthalate including DEHP. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies Elsevier

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate enhances melanoma tumor growth via differential effect on M1-and M2-polarized macrophages in mouse model

Loading next page...
 
/lp/elsevier/di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-enhances-melanoma-tumor-growth-via-s0KTGRsRVa
Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0968-090X
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.envpol.2017.10.030
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers that influence sexual and reproductive development. Here, we investigated whether di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects macrophage polarization that are associated with tumor initiation and progression. No changes were observed in LPS- or ConA-stimulated in vitro spleen B or T cell proliferation for 48 h, respectively. In contrast, macrophage functions were inhibited in response to DEHP for 12 h as judged by LPS-induced H2O2 and NO production and zymosan A-mediated phagocytosis. When six weeks old male mice were pre-exposed to 4.0 mg/kg DEHP for 21 days before the injection of B16F10 melanoma cells and post-exposed to 4.0 mg/kg DEHP for 7 days, tumor nodule formation and the changes in tumor volume were higher than those in control group. Furthermore, when male mice were intraperitoneally pretreated with DEHP for 3 or 4 weeks and peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) or bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the expression of COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 was reduced in DEHP-pretreated cells as compared with that in LPS-stimulated control cells. While the production of nitric oxide (NO) for 18 h was reduced by LPS-stimulated PECs and M1-type BMDMs, IL-4 expression was enhanced in LPS-stimulated BMDMs. When BMDMs were incubated with IL-4 for 30 h, arginase 1 for M2-type macrophages was increased in transcriptional and translational level. Data implicate that macrophages were differentially polarized by DEHP treatment, which reduced M1-polarzation but enhanced M2-polarization. Taken together, these data demonstrate that DEHP could affect in vivo immune responses of macrophages, leading to the suppression of their tumor-preventing ability. This suggests that individuals at high risk for tumor incidence should avoid long-term exposure to various kind of phthalate including DEHP.

Journal

Transportation Research Part C: Emerging TechnologiesElsevier

Published: Jan 1, 2018

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off