As a newly developed, highly efficient strobilurin fungicide, pyraoxystrobin has been reported to be highly toxic to some aquatic organisms. However, the toxicity of pyraoxystrobin to different life stages of fish and the potential underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Hence, in the present study, the acute toxicity of pyraoxystrobin to different life stages of zebrafish (embryo, larva, and adult) was assessed. The developmental toxicity of pyraoxystrobin to zebrafish embryos and its effects on gene transcription in the embryo were also investigated. The results showed that the 96-h LC50 values of pyraoxystrobin to embryos [2h post-fertilization (hpf)], 12h post-hatching (hph) larvae (84 hpf), 72 hph larvae (144 hpf), and adult zebrafish were 4.099, 1.069, 3.236, and 5.970µg/L, respectively. This suggests that pyraoxystrobin has very high toxicity to different life stages of zebrafish, while the newly hatched larvae constitute the most sensitive period of zebrafish to pyraoxystrobin. Decreased heart rate, hatching inhibition, growth regression, and morphological deformities were observed in zebrafish embryos after acute exposure to different concentrations of pyraoxystrobin. The rate of malformation increased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in embryos, and the most pronounced abnormality was pericardial edema and yolk sac edema. Pyraoxystrobin (2 and 4μg/L) significantly altered the mRNA levels of genes related to mitochondrial respiratory chain and ATP synthesis (NDI, uqcrc, and ATPo6), oxidative stress (Mn-Sod, Cat, and Gpx), apoptosis (p53, Bcl2, Bax, and Cas3), and immune system (TNFα, IFN, and IL-1b) in zebrafish embryos. This result indicates that the alteration of these genes is a potential mechanism underlying the toxic effects of pyraoxystrobin on zebrafish.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety – Elsevier
Published: Apr 30, 2018
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