This paper presents a benchmarking model to enable systematic selection of anode and cathode materials for lithium batteries in stationary applications, hybrid and battery electric vehicles. The model incorporates parameters for energy density, power density, safety, lifetime, costs and raw materials. Combinations of carbon anodes, Li4Ti5O12 or TiO2 with LiFePO4 cathodes comprise interesting combinations for application in hybrid power trains. Higher cost and raw material prioritization of stationary applications hinders the breakthrough of Li4Ti5O12, while a combination of TiO2 and LiFePO4 is suggested. The favored combinations resemble state-of-the-art materials, whereas novel cell chemistries must be optimized for cells in battery electric vehicles. In contrast to actual research efforts, sulfur as a cathode material is excluded due to its low volumetric energy density and its known lifetime and safety issues. Lithium as anode materials is discarded due to safety issues linked to electrode melting and dendrite formation. A high capacity composite Li2MnO3·LiNi0.5Co0.5O2 and high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode with silicon as anode material promise high energy densities with sufficient lifetime and safety properties if electrochemical and thermal stabilization of the electrolyte/electrode interfaces and bulk materials is achieved. The model allows a systematic top-down orientation of research on lithium batteries.
Journal of Power Sources – Elsevier
Published: Jul 15, 2016
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera