River water and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents from metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan were tested for the presence of the pollutants estrone (E 1 ), estriol (E 3 ), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE 2 ) using a new methodology that involves high-flow solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The method was also used to investigate the removal of the analytes by conventional drinking water treatment processes. Without adjusting the pH, we extracted 1-L samples with PolarPlus C 18 Speedisks under a flow rate exceeding 100 mL/min, in which six samples could be done simultaneously using an extraction station. The adsorbent was washed with 40% methanol/60% water and then eluted by 50% methanol/50% dichloromethane. The eluate was concentrated until almost dry and was reconstituted by 20 μL of methanol. Quantitation was done by LC-MS/MS-negative electrospray ionization in the selected reaction monitoring mode with isotope-dilution techniques. The mobile phase was 10 mM N -methylmorpholine aqueous solution/acetonitrile with gradient elution. Mean recoveries of spiked Milli-Q water were 65–79% and precisions were within 2–20% of the tested concentrations (5.0–200 ng/L). The method was validated with spiked upstream river water; precisions were most within 10% of the tested concentrations (10–100 ng/L) with most RSDs < 10%. LODs of the environmental matrixes were 0.78–7.65 ng/L. A pre-filtration step before solid-phase extraction may significantly influence the measurement of E 1 and EE 2 concentrations; disk overloading by water matrix may also impact analyte recoveries along with ion suppression. In the Taipei water study, the four steroid estrogens were detected in river samples (ca. 15 ng/L for E 2 and EE 2 and 35−45 ng/L for E 1 and E 3 ). Average levels of 19–26 ng/L for E 1 , E 2 , and EE 2 were detected in most wastewater effluents, while only a single effluent sample contained E 3 . The higher level in the river was likely caused by the discharge of untreated human and farming waste into the water. In the drinking water treatment simulations, coagulation removed 20–50% of the estrogens. An increased dose of aluminum sulfate did not improve the performance. Despite the reactive phenolic moiety in the analytes, the steroids were decreased only 20–44% of the initial concentrations in pre- or post-chlorination. Rapid filtration, with crushed anthracite playing a major role, took out more than 84% of the estrogens. Except for E 3 , the whole procedure successfully removed most of the estrogens even if the initial concentration reached levels as high as 500 ng/L.
Science of the Total Environment – Elsevier
Published: Jun 1, 2007
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera