Determination of mineral contents of wild-grown edible mushrooms
, Yusuf Uzun
, Yusuf Tunçtürk
, Kenan Demirel
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering, 65080 Van, Turkey
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Science and Art, Department of Biology, 65080 Van, Turkey
Received 28 March 2008
Received in revised form 2 May 2008
Accepted 20 August 2008
Wild edible mushrooms
The aim of this study was to determine the mineral contents of wild edible mushrooms. The phosphorus
(P), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na), copper (Cu) and man-
ganese (Mn) contents of thirty wild-grown common edible mushrooms, collected from Erzurum prov-
ince, Turkey, were analyzed. The minimum and maximum macronutrient contents of mushrooms were
determined as mg/g dw for Mg (0.90–4.54), Ca (0.17–8.80), K (12.6–29.1), Na (0.03–4.85) and P (0.64–
4.49), while minimum and maximum micronutrient contents of mushrooms were determined as
mg/kg dw for Zn (26.7–185), Fe (50.1–842), Cu (9.23–107) and Mn (5.54–135). The potassium content
was found to be higher than those of the other minerals in all the mushrooms. The K, P and Cu concen-
trations were determined to be highest in Suillus granulatus.
Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mushrooms are valuable, healthy foods being low in calories
and high in proteins, vitamins and minerals (Racz, Papp, Prokai,
& Kovacz, 1996). The consumption of wild edible mushrooms is
increasing, even in the developed world, due to their good contents
of proteins and trace minerals (Agrahar-Murugkar & Sub-
bulakshmi, 2005). Wild-growing mushrooms have been a popular
delicacy in many countries, particularly in central and east Europe.
Wild mushrooms are also a popular food source in Turkey. Mush-
rooms have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine.
Mushrooms have also been reported as therapeutic foods, useful
in preventing diseases such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia
and cancer. These functional characteristics are mainly due to their
chemical composition (Manzi, Aguzzi, & Pizzoferrato, 2001).
In general, mushroom fruiting bodies, on a dry weight basis,
contain about 39.9% carbohydrate, 17.5% protein and 2.9% fats,
the rest being the minerals (Demirbasß, 2001; Latiff, Daran, & Moh-
omed, 1996). Wild-growing macrofungi have been a favourite del-
icacy in many countries. The macrofungi are collected to make a
substantial contribution to food intake. Therefore, it is necessary
to know the levels of essential elements in edible mushrooms
lu, Yilmaz, & Merdivan, 2001). The bioavailability of iron in
mushrooms is therefore high and up to 90% of the iron present
can be absorbed (Kalac & Svoboda, 2000).
The contents of trace metals are related to species of mush-
room, collecting area of the sample, age of fruiting bodies and
mycelium, and distance from any source of pollution (Kalac, Burda,
& Staskova, 1991). Metals, such as iron, copper, zinc and manga-
nese are essential metals, since they play an important role in bio-
logical systems. Lead and cadmium are non-essential metals as
they are toxic, even in traces (Schroeder, 1973). The essential met-
als can also produce toxic effects when the metal intake is exces-
sively elevated (Tüzen, Sesli, & Soylak, 2007). Accurate and
adequate food composition data are invaluable for estimating the
adequacy of intakes of essential nutrients and assessing exposure
risks from intake of toxic non-essential heavy metals (Onianwa,
Adeyemo, Idowu, & Ogabiela, 2001; Soylak, Karatepe, Elci, & Dogan,
Trace elements, whether essential or non-essential, above
threshold concentration levels, can cause morphological abnormal-
ities, reduce growth and increase mortality and mutagenic effects
in humans (Olumuyiwa, Oluwatoyin, Olanrewaja & Steve, 2007).
The average intakes are 1000, 2, 18, 400, 2, 1000, 15, 4000 and
2400 mg per day for Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, K, Zn, P and Na, respec-
tively. This daily nutrient intake is likely to pose no risk of adverse
effects (Food, 2001).
The uptake of metal ions in mushrooms is different from plants
in many ways. For this reason, the concentration variations of min-
erals depend on mushroom species and their ecosystems (Seeger,
1982). The trace metal contents in the mushrooms are mainly af-
fected by acidic and organic matter content of their ecosystem
and soil (Gast, Jansen, Bierling, & Haanstra, 1988).
Turkey has a large edible mushroom potential and is becoming
an important exporter of wild mushrooms. Trace metal levels in
wild mushroom samples in Erzurum have not yet been deter-
mined. The purpose of this study is to determine toxic and essen-
tial elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ca, Na, Mg, K and P) in fruit bodies of
several mushroom species from Erzurum, Turkey.
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* Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 432 2251017/1671; fax: +90 432 2251104.
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (H. Gençcelep).
Food Chemistry 113 (2009) 1033–1036
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