Article history: Ti-pillared bentonite, Cu, Ag and Fe modiﬁed Ti-pillared bentonite and Cu/Ti- and Fe/Ti-mixed pillared Received 14 May 2015 bentonite were synthesized using different titanium sources by direct synthesis or by modiﬁcation after Received in revised form 24 October 2015 synthesis. The effects of synthesis conditions on the surface characteristics, pore structure and acidity Accepted 30 October 2015 of the pillared bentonites were investigated by SEM–EDS, XPS, XRD, N -adsorption/desorption and FTIR Available online 3 November 2015 analyses before and after ammonia adsorption. The results of EDS, XPS and XRD analysis conﬁrmed that titanium, copper, silver and iron were incorporated into the bentonite structure. In the XRD patterns, Keywords: the formation of delaminated structure reﬂecting the non-parallel distribution of the bentonite layers by Ti-pillared bentonite pillaring with Ti, Cu/Ti and Fe/Ti-pillars was observed. XPS spectra indicated the presence of TiO , CuO, Copper Ag and Ag O and Fe O species depending on the source of active metals in the synthesized samples. 2 2 3 Silver and iron In the FTIR spectra, an increase in the Bronsted/Lewis peak intensity was observed with the loading of Impregnation copper and iron, whereas a decrease in Lewis and Bronsted acidities was
Applied Surface Science – Elsevier
Published: Jan 1, 2016
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