1 Introduction</h5> Obesity, especially central adiposity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) place adults at high risk for other physical health problems, especially diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and hypertension [1–9] . Central obesity has been associated with early stressful environments and events [10–13] , including intra-uterine stresses and early illnesses [14,15] , poverty  , and specific and cumulative stresses such as physical and sexual abuse in childhood or death of a close family member [17–20] , in both animal models and human studies [14,21–23] . Psychosocial factors including socioeconomic status (SES), education, and functional status (adjustment or functioning in the domains of mental health, work, leisure/interests, and close relationships) provide a mediated link between early life stressors and later health [12,16,24–27] . Impaired psychosocial functioning is associated with health risk factors [28,29] , such as smoking, drinking, poor diet, and sedentary lifestyle that set the stage for poor health outcomes in general.</P>Many psychosocial factors and health risk factors are considered modifiable, with the potential to decrease obesity rates and costs  , and are the focus of many prevention/intervention programs. However, it is rare for such programs to assess childhood adversity and its potential direct, non-mediated impact
Metabolism – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2014
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