New candidates of 3-(4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol/isoxazol-5-yl)-2-phenyl-1H-indole derivatives (4–7) were designed combining the pyrazoline/isoxazoline heterocycles and 2-phenylindole to explore its potential as 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) inhibitors. The design of the new derivatives was based on utilizing the antioxidant properties of pyrazoline, 2-phenylindole and the good 15-LOX inhibition properties of indolylpyrazoline. The derivatives were synthesized adopting simple and laboratory friendly reaction conditions to give the target compounds in quantitative yields. The resulting indolylpyrazolines/isoxazolines were evaluated as antioxidants against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD); indolylpyrazoline (4b) was the most potent antioxidant against SOD assay (IC50 = 1.78 μM) to be superior to ascorbic by 2 folds. Consistently, (4b) was the most potent inhibitor when tested against Soybean 15-LOX (IC50 = 3.84 μM) excelling quercetin as standard inhibitor by 1.8 folds. Some of the new derivatives were docked into the active binding site of human 15-LOX (PDB entry 4NRE) emphasizing the most potent derivative (4b) and the least potent one (4c). Docking solutions of compounds (4b), (4c), (5b) and (6c) revealed that (4b) was the only compound that got stabilized into the catalytic pocket of enzyme by π-cation interaction with the catalytic Fe+ and formation of one hydrogen bond with Ile 676 amino acid. Other derivatives including the least potent one variably got stabilized into the active binding pocket by π-cation interaction with the catalytic Fe+ but failed to form hydrogen bond with Ile 676. For the future optimization of the generated inhibitors, (i) antioxidant activity against SOD, (ii) the inhibitor stabilization by π-cation interaction with the catalytic Fe+3 and (iii) formation of hydrogen bond with Ile 676 should be regarded.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry – Elsevier
Published: Feb 10, 2018
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