1 Introduction</h5> The reduction of energy consumption by improving the efficiency of industrial processes is an essential mechanism to minimize global warming. CO 2 capture processes may significantly diminish the greenhouse gas emissions; although one of their main drawbacks is the high energy penalty. Energy optimization is, therefore, crucial for CO 2 capture development.</P>Among the different proposed technologies, high temperature looping cycles represent an option with wide integration capabilities, which would limit this energy penalty to 10–12 efficiency points [1,2] . Calcium looping cycles take advantage of the reversible decomposition of CaCO 3 combining the low sorbent cost, the absence of flue gas treatment and the possibility of integration with power plants or cement industry [3–5] .</P>Shimizu et al.  first proposed the dual circulating fluidized bed configuration for implementing the Ca-looping in post-combustion. A flowsheet diagram is shown in Fig. 1 . Flue gas (1) from a power plant is fed to the first reactor, where the carbonation reaction takes place, at around 650 °C, and a percentage of the CO 2 is captured exothermically. Afterwards, flue gas is addressed to the stack as clean gas (2). A stream of partially carbonated solids (3) is then directed
Applied Energy – Elsevier
Published: Nov 1, 2013
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