1 Introduction</h5> Further development of renewable energy sources and the reduction in the consumption of fossil fuels are important elements in the strategy to reduce climate change. As a response to this, the EU has agreed upon the Renewable Energy Sources Directive ( EU-RES, 2009 ). As one of the instruments to meet these objectives Norway and Sweden agreed (from January 1, 2012) on a joint green electricity certificate market aimed at stimulating the production of 26.4 TWh of renewable electricity ( Government, 2011 ). The scheme promotes green energy by offering producers of electricity from renewable sources a green certificate (‘subsidy’) for every MWh of electricity produced. This is expected to further boost the development of especially small-scale hydropower and wind power in both countries Table 1 .</P>The development of renewable energy sources like hydropower and wind-power is however controversial due to the adverse impacts on the local environment (e.g. Edenhofer et al., 2011 ; Subramanian, 2012 ). Within the hydropower sector, there are conflicting views about whether the most environmentally friendly strategy is to develop many small-scale hydropower projects or a few large ones. Despite this, it appears that policies in many countries support the view
Journal of Environmental Management – Elsevier
Published: Jul 1, 2014
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